The Sophists to Secular Humanism He says somewhere that man is the measure of all things, of the existing, that they are, and of the non-existing, that they are not. Their focus on nature contrasts with the emphasis in Indian and Chinese philosophy on salvation and morality and suggests the later development of science in Western philosophy. But eventually there was a reaction in Greek philosophy. The reaction can be characterized as Greek Humanism.
Posted on January 6, by Scott Alexander [Epistemic status: Content warning for discussion of suicide, murder, and race] I. There was a mass shooting — this time, in San Bernardino, California.
And once again on Sunday, President Barack Obama called for measures that make it harder for would-be shooters to buy deadly firearms. The research on this is overwhelmingly clear.
Donald Moeller was executed by lethal injection in South Dakota on October 30, for the kidnapping, rape and murder of 9-year-old Becky O’Connell. Retributive justice is a theory of justice that holds that the best response to a crime is a punishment proportional to the offense, inflicted because the offender deserves the punishment. Prevention of future crimes (deterrence) or rehabilitation of the offender are not considered in . Of the four justifications, only retribution is part of the definition of punishment and none of the other justifications is a guaranteed outcome, aside from obvious exceptions such as an executed man being incapacitated with regard to further crimes.
No matter how you look at the data, more guns mean more gun deaths. Vox does the same thing here and here Gun deaths are a combined measure of gun homicides and gun suicides. Here is a graph of guns vs.
And here is a graph of guns vs. The relationship between gun ownership and homicide is weak and appears negativethe relationship between gun ownership and suicide is strong and positive. The entire effect Vox highlights in their graph is due to gun suicides, but they are using it to imply conclusions about gun homicides.
I am not the first person to notice this. And Robert VerBruggen of National Review does the same analysis decomposing gun deaths into suicides and homicides, and like me finds no correlation with homicides.
German Lopez of Vox responds here. This is true, although given that Vox has done this time and time again for months on end and all VerBruggen is doing is correctly pointing out a flaw in their methods, it feels kind of like an isolated demand for rigor.
Lopez suggests the ones at the Harvard Injury Control Research Centerwhich has done several statistical analyses of gun violence.
They list two such analyses comparing gun ownership versus homicide rates across US states: This study does indeed conclude that higher gun ownership rates are correlated with higher murder rates after adjusting for confounders.
Furthermore, even after adjusting for confounders it finds in several age categories that higher gun ownership rates are correlated with higher non-gun homicide rates eg the rates at which people are murdered by knives or crowbars or whatever at p less than 0. This is really suspicious! Unless guns are exerting some kind of malign pro-murder influence that makes people commit more knife murders, some sort of confounding influence has remained.
The study gets its murder rate numbers from the National Center for Health Statistics, which seems like a trustworthy source. This makes some intuitive sense. Among people who want to commit suicide, suppose a fixed percent prefer to use guns compared to other methods.
In that case, the determining factor for whether or not they use a gun will be whether or not they have a gun. Hospitals diligently record statistics about suicide victims including method of suicide, so if our assumption holds this should be a decent proxy for gun ownership within a state.
When I repeat it with the real gun ownership data, all of these positive correlations disappear. Real gun ownership correlates very modestly — 0. For some reason, suicidal Southerners are much more likely to kill themselves with guns than suicidal people from the rest of the States, even when you control for whether they have a gun or not.
This is why they found higher homicide rates, including higher rates of non-gun homicide. They also have wised up to the fact that Southern-ness is important, and they include a dummy variable for it in their calculations. They also control for non-gun crime rate, Gini coefficient, income, and alcohol use.
They find that even after controlling for all of this stuff, there is still a significant correlation between gun ownership level and gun homicide rate.
Further, this time they are using good statistics, and there is not a significant correlation between gun ownership and non-gun-homicide rate. Further, there is a correlation between gun ownership and total homicide rate, suggesting that the gun-gun-homicide correlation was not just an artifact of people switching from inferior weapons to guns while still committing the same number of murders.
Further, this is robust to a lot of different decisions about what to control or not to control, and what to include or not to include.Retributive justice: Retributive justice, response to criminal behaviour that focuses on the punishment of lawbreakers and the compensation of victims.
In general, the severity of the punishment is proportionate to the seriousness of the crime. Retribution appears alongside restorative principles in law codes from the.
MRC is a diversified global media company with operations in filmed entertainment, television programming and original digital content. The company is the . An Ethical Analysis against Capital Punishment Introduction This paper compares and contrasts the two different ethical perspectives for and against Capital Punishment.
Capital Punishment is a very sensitive subject because it touches on many important topics such as justice.
punishment, retribution and utilitarianism, which are used as rationales for capital punishment, do not justify the use of cost-benefit analysis as part of that rationale.
Calling on the theory of restorative justice, the paper recommends a change in the. Robert Ferguson’s Inferno: An Anatomy of American Punishment is a book of searing moral vision.
He asks how it is that we have become a nation of punishers who can no longer see the human dignity of the punished―indeed, can no longer see the punished at all.
Death Penalty, Retribution and Penal Policy, The Jack P. Gibbs Follow this and additional works at:timberdesignmag.com THE DEATH PENALTY, RETRIBUTION AND PENAL POLICY JACK P. GIBBS* not rejecting capital punishment as unconstitu-.