Justice is Better than Injustice. Rejection of Mimetic Art X. Immortality of the Soul X.
Characters[ edit ] Plato's Meno is a Socratic dialogue in which the two main speakers, Socrates and Meno also transliterated as Menondiscuss human virtue: Additional participants in the dialogue include one of Meno's slaves and the Athenian politician Anytusa prosecutor of Socrates with whom Meno is friendly.
Meno is visiting Athens from Thessaly with a large entourage of slaves attending him. Young, good-looking and well-born, Meno is a student of Gorgiasa prominent sophist whose views on virtue clearly influence Meno's. He claims early in the dialogue that he has held forth many times on the subject of virtue, and in front of large audiences.
One feature of the dialogue is Socrates' use of one of Meno's slaves to demonstrate his idea of anamnesisthat certain knowledge is innate and "recollected" by the soul through proper inquiry.
Dialogue[ edit ] Introduction of virtue[ edit ] The dialogue begins with Meno asking Socrates to tell him if virtue can be taught. Socrates says that he does not know what virtue is, and neither does anyone else he knows.
Virtue is different for a woman, he says. Her domain is the management of the household, and she is supposed to obey her husband. He says that children male and female have their own proper virtue, and so do old men—free or slaves. Socrates rejects the idea that human virtue depends on a person's sex or age.
Socrates points out to the slaveholder that "governing well" cannot be a virtue of a slave, because then he would not be a slave. Socrates remarks that Meno makes many out of one, like somebody who breaks a plate.
Socrates points out that this raises a second problem—many people do not recognize evil. Socrates asks Meno to consider whether good things must be acquired virtuously in order to be really good. No satisfactory definition of virtue emerges in the Meno.
Socrates' comments, however, show that he considers a successful definition to be unitary, rather than a list of varieties of virtue, that it must contain all and only those terms which are genuine instances of virtue, and must not be circular.
Even if you happen to bump right into it, how will you know it is the thing you didn't know?
Since the soul has had contact with real things prior to birth, we have only to 'recollect' them when alive. Such recollection requires Socratic questioning, which according to Socrates is not teaching.
Socrates demonstrates his method of questioning and recollection by interrogating a slave who is ignorant of geometry. Socrates begins one of the most influential dialogues of Western philosophy regarding the argument for inborn knowledge.
By drawing geometric figures in the ground Socrates demonstrates that the slave is initially unaware of the length that a side must be in order to double the area of a square with two-foot sides.
The slave guesses first that the original side must be doubled in length four feetand when this proves too much, that it must be three feet. This is still too much, and the slave is at a loss.
Socrates claims that before he got hold of him the slave who has been picked at random from Meno's entourage might have thought he could speak "well and fluently" on the subject of a square double the size of a given square.
Each diagonal cuts each two foot square in half, yielding an area of two square feet. The square composed of four of the eight interior triangular areas is eight square feet, double that of the original area.
He gets the slave to agree that this is twice the size of the original square and says that he has "spontaneously recovered" knowledge he knew from a past life  without having been taught. Socrates is satisfied that new beliefs were "newly aroused" in the slave. Socrates proceeds on the hypothesis that virtue is knowledge, and it is quickly agreed that, if this is true, virtue is teachable.
They turn to the question of whether virtue is indeed knowledge. Socrates is hesitant, because, if virtue were knowledge, there should be teachers and learners of it, but there are none.
Coincidentally Anytus appears, whom Socrates praises as the son of Anthemionwho earned his fortune with intelligence and hard work. He says that Anthemion had his son well-educated and so Anytus is well-suited to join the investigation.
Socrates suggests that the sophists are teachers of virtue. Anytus is horrified, saying that he neither knows any, nor cares to know any. Socrates then questions why it is that men do not always produce sons of the same virtue as themselves. He alludes to other notable male figures, such as ThemistoclesAristidesPericles and Thucydidesand casts doubt on whether these men produced sons as capable of virtue as themselves.
Anytus becomes offended and accuses Socrates of slanderwarning him to be careful expressing such opinions. The historical Anytus was one of Socrates' accusers in his trial.A summary of Book III in Plato's The Republic. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Republic and what it means.
Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Oct 05, · Summary and analysis of Book 5 of Plato's Republic. My blog: timberdesignmag.com Please help support this channel: timberdesignmag.com Plato's Republic Homework Help Questions What is the result or consequence of the banishment of poets by Plato?
Plato’s strategy in The Republic is to first explicate the primary notion of societal, or political, justice, and then to derive an analogous concept of individual justice. In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. Need help with Book 2 in Plato's The Republic? Check out our revolutionary side-by-side summary and analysis. The Republic Book 2 Summary & Analysis from LitCharts | The creators of SparkNotes. The first five chapters of the second book of Aristotle's Politics contain a series of criticisms leveled against Plato's Republic. Despite the many studies on Aristotle's Politics, these chapters have largely been neglected; there has been no book-length study of them this century.
Plato wants to banish poets from his ideal republic because he thinks they would. Book I of The Republic appears to be a Socratic dialogue on the nature of justice (Gk.
δικαιωσυνη [dikaiôsunê]).As always, the goal of the discussion is to discover the genuine nature of the subject at hand, but the process involves the proposal, criticism, and rejection of several inadequate attempts at defining what justice really is.
Plato’s strategy in The Republic is to first explicate the primary notion of societal, or political, justice, and then to derive an analogous concept of individual justice. In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. Plato, through Socrates, loves talking about (and criticizing), so head on over to our Homer guides if you start getting lost.
Socrates says that Homer and Simonides both dish up definitions of justice in which .