OECD reports prepared by his team include: An Uphill Battle; Dare to Share: Willem graduated from the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, and holds a doctorate from St.
Top of page The nomenclature of A. Townsendand Aellen and Akeroyd used the name A.
As it was Hooker who first combined the two taxa and selected the name A. Several infraspecific names of A. Townsendrecognized two subspecies: Recent comprehensive lists of regional floras have treated differently the varibility of A.
Recent detailed morphological investigations e. However, their taxonomic ranks remain uncertain. The subspecies oleraceus is a cultigen form that rarely occurs in the wild in Europe or North America and its native distribution range is not known.
Consequently, it could be argued that subsp. The taxa blitum and emarginatus have different origin and Iamonico personal communication, suggests that they should be classed as species to reflect their evolutionary histories. The specific name 'lividus' means 'red' while 'blitum' translates as 'tasteless herb'.
Description Top of page A.
It grows between 10 and 80 cm tall, sometimes reaching 90 cm. Stems are prostrate or ascending; sometimes erect, sometimes radiating from base and forming mats; glabrous, green to brown occasionally reddishusually highly-branched. Leaves are usually green, ovate, elliptic to rhombic see the subspecies descriptions below for the size of the leavesmargins entire, apex emarginate to bilobed sometimes mucronatebase obtuse or cuneate, glabrous, petioled petiole 1.
Synflorescences arranged in axillary glomerules and in terminal spike-like excepting some forms of the subsp. Floral bracts, greenwish, ovate [ 0. Staminate flowers with 3 tepals, ovate to lanceolate; stamens 3.
Pistillate flowers with 3 tepals, lanceolate or linear, elliptic to obovate or spatulate [ 0. Seed lenticular see the subspecies descriptions below for diametersblack, brownish-black or dark-reddish, smooth, shiny. Townsend indicated that there are more than three perianth segments 0.
The capsule is 1. Seeds 1 - 1. Distribution Top of page The native ranges of the three subspecies blitum, emarginatus and oleraceus are different, although the taxa have been artificially dispersed all over the world and the original distribution ranges are now blurred.
Since the infraspecific classification is yet little known, the distribution table is of A.
Alien in North America Costea et al. It is also recorded in Asia Bojian et al. It is considered introduced in the warm temperate regions of North America and Europe.
It is probably originated from a group of the subsp.
It rarely occurs in the wild in North America and Europe. Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.
When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Profile William is CEPA's Chairman.
He is a former top civil servant now working at a senior level in the private sector. His Whitehall career included 15 years of Board level experience in five Government departments focusing on energy and transport.
CEPA: The Energy Subsidy Issue Page 1 EPA CENTRE FOR POLICY ANALYSIS ACCRA -GHANA. The Centre for Policy Analysis (CEPA) was established in as an independent, non-governmental think- tank, which provides analysis and perspectives on economic policy issues of interest to Ghana and the developing world.
v E-GOVERNMENT IN SUPPORT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Acknowledgements The United Nations E-Government Survey is the product of a collective effort by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), Division for Public Administration.
The Centre for Policy Analysis (CEPA), an independent non-governmental think-tank, which provides rigorous analysis and perspectives on economic policy issues of Ghana and the developing world, has hailed the B+ Ratings on .
The EU project "Sustainable wildlife management to improve the living conditions of local communities" seeks an experienced senior scientist for its Lastoursville site, who is committed to rural fieldwork and engagement of local communities in the concerted management of .