But to enter fully upon the nature of these various worlds would carry us too far into the obscure mysticism of the Cabala.
Yale Studies in English 15 pp. Address to young men on the right use of Greek literature.
Out of the abundance of his experience the author will advise young men as to the pagan literature, showing them what to accept, and what to reject. To the Christian the life eternal is the supreme goal, and the guide to this life is the Holy Scriptures; but since young men cannot appreciate the deep thoughts contained therein, they are to study the profane writings, in which truth appears as in a mirror.
Profane learning should ornament the mind, as foliage graces the fruit-bearing tree. In studying pagan lore one must discriminate between the helpful and the injurious, accepting the one, but closing one's ears to the siren song of the other.
Since the life to come is to be attained through virtue, chief attention must be paid to those passages in which virtue is praised; such may be found, for example, in Hesiod, Homer, Solon, Theognis, and Prodicus.
Indeed, almost all eminent philosophers have extolled virtue.
The words of such men should meet with more than mere theoretical acceptance, for one must try to realize them in his life, remembering that to seem to be good when one is not so is the height of injustice.
But in the pagan literature virtue is lauded in deeds as well as in words, wherefore one should study those acts of noble men which coincide with the teachings of the Scriptures. To return to the original thought, young men must distinguish between helpful and injurious knowledge, keeping clearly in mind the Christian's purpose in life.
So, like the athlete or the musician, they must bend every energy to one task, the winning of the heavenly crown. This end is to be compassed by holding the body under, by scorning riches and fame, and by subordinating all else to virtue.
While this ideal will be matured later by the study of the Scriptures, it is at present to be fostered by the study of the pagan writers; from them should be stored up knowledge for the future. The above are some of the more important precepts; others the writer will continue to explain from time to time, trusting that no young man will make the fatal error of disregarding them.
Many considerations, young men, prompt me to recommend to you the principles which I deem most desirable, and which I believe will be of use to you if you will adopt them.
For my time of life, my many-sided training, yea, my adequate experience in those vicissitudes of life which teach their lessons at every turn, 1 have so familiarized me with human affairs, that I am able to map out the safest course for those just starting upon their careers.
By nature's common bond I stand in the same relationship to you as your parents, so that I am no whit behind them in my concern for you. Indeed, if I do not misinterpret your feelings, you no longer crave your parents when you come to me.
Now if you should receive my words with gladness, you would be in the second class of those who, according to Hesiod, merit praise; if not, I should say nothing disparaging, but no doubt you yourselves would remember the passage in which that poet says: Now this is my counsel, that you should not unqualifiedly give over your minds to these men, as a ship is surrendered to the rudder, to follow whither they list, but that, while receiving whatever of value they have to offer, you yet recognize what it is wise to ignore.
Accordingly, from this point on I shall take up and discuss the pagan writings, and how we are to discriminate among them. We Christians, young men, hold that this human life is not a supremely precious thing, nor do we recognize anything as unconditionally a blessing which benefits us in this life only.
Accordingly, whatever helps us towards this we say that we must love and follow after with all our might, but those things which have no bearing upon it should be held as naught. But to explain what this life is, and in what way and manner we shall live it, requires more time than is at our command, and more mature hearers than you.
And yet, in saying thus much, perhaps I have made it sufficiently clear to you that if one should estimate and gather together all earthly weal from the creation of the world, he would not find it comparable to the smallest part of the possessions of heaven; rather, that all the precious things in this life fall further short of the least good in the other than the shadow or the dream fails of the reality.
Or rather, to avail myself of a still more natural comparison, by as much as the soul is superior to the body in all things, by so much is one of these lives superior to the other.
But so long as our immaturity forbids our understanding their deep thought, we exercise our spiritual perceptions upon profane writings, which are not altogether different, and in which we perceive the truth as it were in shadows and in mirrors.
Thus we imitate those who perform the exercises of military practice, for they acquire skill in gymnastics and in dancing, and then in battle reap the reward of their training. We must needs believe that the greatest of all battles lies before us, in preparation for which we must do and suffer all things to gain power.
Consequently we must be conversant with poets, with historians, with orators, indeed with all men who may further our soul's salvation. Just as dyers prepare the cloth before they apply the dye, be it purple or any other color, so indeed must we also, if we would preserve indelible the idea of the true virtue, become first initiated in the pagan lore, then at length give special heed to the sacred and divine teachings, even as we first accustom ourselves to the sun's reflection in the water, and then become able to turn our eyes upon the very sun itself.
If, then, there is any affinity between the two literatures, a knowledge of them should be useful to us in our search for truth; if not, the comparison, by emphasizing the contrast, will be of no small service in strengthening our regard for the better one.
With what now may we compare these two kinds of education to obtain a simile? Just as it is the chief mission of the tree to bear its fruit in its season, though at the same time it puts forth for ornament the leaves which quiver on its boughs, even so the real fruit of the soul is truth, yet it is not without advantage for it to embrace the pagan wisdom, as also leaves offer shelter to the fruit, and an appearance not untimely.
That Moses, whose name is a synonym for wisdom, severely trained his mind in the learning of the Egyptians, 7 and thus became able to appreciate their deity.Poet Ann Lauterbach's work has been compared to the poetry of John Ashbery and Barbara Guest.
, Museum of Fine Arts (Springfield), ; John Goode Gallery catalogue, John Goode Gallery (New York, NY), ; Conversant Essays: Contemporary Poets on Poetry, edited by James Ashbery and Contemporary .
The theories of these poets are outlined in essays like Alan Shapiro's The New Formalism, in Critical Inquiry, and Gioia's Notes on the New Formalism, published in Conversant Essays: Contemporary Poets and Poetry (), edited by James McCorkle.
In his discussion, Gioia insists that attention to form does not.
THE SYMBOLISM OF FREEMASONRY: Illustrating and Explaining Its Science and Philosophy, Its Legends, Myths and Symbols. by ALBERT GALLATIN MACKEY. In Conversant Essays: Contemporary Poets on Poetry.
Ed. James McCorkle. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, —. Identity, and Witness in the Poetry of Gloria Anzaldúa, Cherríe Moraga, and Leslie Marmon Silko.” Ed. Elaine Hedges and Shirley Fisher Fishkin. The Malahat Review, established in , is among Canada’s leading literary journals.
Published quarterly, it features contemporary Canadian and international and contemporary works of poetry and fiction as well as reviews of recently published Canadian poetry, fiction and literary non-fiction.
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