Earthquakes and the devastating effects in the united states economy

This earthquake caused avalanches on Mount Everest. At least 19 died, [93] with at least others injured or missing.

Earthquakes and the devastating effects in the united states economy

The range is situated along an active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps in southern Europe to the Himalayas in Asia.

The seismicity along this belt is marked by frequent major earthquakes from the Aegean Seathrough Turkey and Iran, and into Afghanistan. Though the recurrence of seismic events in Armenia does not reach the high frequency that is seen in other segments of this zone, rapid crustal deformation there is associated with active thrust faulting and volcanic activity.

The mainshock produced surface rupture and propagated to the west with a separate strike-slip sub-event occurring two seconds later that propagated to the southeast. Going westward the fault split into two branches, a north-dipping reverse fault north branch and a right slip fault south branchbut neither produced surface rupture.

A total of five sub-events occurred in the first eleven seconds and an aftershock measuring 5. Earthquake-resistant structures Building damage in Leninakan Some of the strongest shaking occurred in industrial areas with chemical and food processing plants, electrical substations, and power plants.

Most bridges and tunnels and other public infrastructure withstood the earthquake but hospitals did not fare well. Most collapsed, killing two-thirds of the doctors, destroying equipment and medicine, and reducing the capacity to handle the critical medical needs in the region.

Gorbachev, in a TV interview several weeks after his expedited return from New York Citysaid that the concrete blocks had been built with more than enough sand but too little concrete, and suggested that the concrete had been stolen.

Leonid Bibindeputy chairman of the state building committee, stated that many newer homes collapsed as well and that he was beginning an investigation into the matter and that criminal charges would be brought.

The official communist party newspaper Pravda said that poor construction, like other issues of neglect in the Soviet system, could be blamed on the Era of Stagnation from the era of Leonid Brezhnev. The group, including a structural engineer who specialized in seismic-resistant designs, agreed that building inadequacies were the primary reason why the strong but not huge earthquake was so damaging, although the freezing temperatures also played a role in the unusually high death toll.

The engineers who scrutinized the damaged buildings and the rescue workers who had dismantled the buildings while extricating survivors ascribe both design shortcomings and improper construction methods for the failure of the buildings.

The Soviets had modified their construction style to accommodate the known seismic risk in the area, but they acknowledged to the team that many of the buildings were not built to withstand an earthquake of that magnitude.

An engineer with the team stated that the regulations for the area mandated that buildings be required to stand up against events measuring seven or eight on the twelve degree Medvedev—Sponheuer—Karnik scale. Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage.

While on site during aftershock monitoring, the US research team verified the presence of soil amplification effects when pronounced difference in readings were observed when compared with nearby rock sites.

Uneven distribution of the seismic energy may have also contributed to the fluctuation in damage.

Earthquakes and the devastating effects in the united states economy

Six friends were in the basement of a nine-story building relocating barrels when it came down around them on December 7. Their injuries were minor, but one person did suffer a broken arm.

They sustained themselves on the food supplies—fruit salad, pickles, and smoked ham—that were available in the basement for 35 days before their rescue in January. Twelve days after the mainshock a French-Soviet team installed a temporary seismic network in the epicentral area to record aftershock activity a separate expedition from the United States also visited the site.

The initial portion of work included nearly a full week setting up the seismometers and optimizing their operation and, with that complete, two full weeks of continuous operation was then completed with twenty six seismometers covering an area over square kilometers.

The final stage concluded with seven weeks through the end of February of continued monitoring with a reduced capacity of twenty units. Six digital recorders built by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg were also used to record signals from three-component seismometers.

Eight of the selected sites were equipped with a vertical component velocity transducer along with an FM telemetry link to transfer data back to a central station where a three-component unit was stationed. There the seismic signals were digitized, along with an internal time signal and an external DCF77 time signal, and stored on magnetic tape.

The tapes were then played back and the P-wave and S-wave arrival times were used to automatically determine aftershock locations. Approximately two hundred aftershocks were recorded each day for the first several days of the expedition and at the end of the recording period in February the equipment was still picking up around shocks per day.

The team then set out to determine an accurate velocity model using data from the more accurate telemetry network. The soviet geophysicists detonated kilograms of TNT in a hole drilled near the mainshock epicenter and the resulting shock waves were detected and used to help pinpoint a more accurate crustal velocity value of 5.

On the east end the events were shallow while the western side, where the majority of the larger aftershocks were concentrated, the hypocenters were up to 14 kilometers 8. The shocks at the southeastern segment indicated right-lateral strike-slip movement along a nearly vertical fault, and may have been related to the Alavar fault.

Moving westward closer to the central segments though, a transition of the fault type was becoming apparent, where an almost equal distribution of reverse fault mechanisms were observed as the strike-slip type.

Along the western segments the fault split into two branches with one to the southwest and the other to the northwest.Japan's economy was dealt a devastating blow by the 9-magnitude earthquake and tsunami that pummeled the country on March 11, An estimated 28, died, and , were displaced.

An estimated 28, died, and , were displaced. Japan's Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster Economic Impact on Japan and the Rest of the World. with widespread health and environmental effects," according to the International Atomic Energy Agency.

increasing the cost of imports to the United States. But Japan didn't need to . It has been two years since a devastating earthquake leveled parts of central Italy. Two months later, two more earthquakes hit, and . Effects of Hazards. Hazardous process of all types can have primary, secondary, and tertiary effects.

Primary Effects occur as a result of the process itself. For example water damage during a flood or collapse of buildings during an earthquake. Japan's Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster Economic Impact on Japan and the Rest of the World.

with widespread health and environmental effects," according to the International Atomic Energy Agency. increasing the cost of imports to the United States. But Japan didn't need to sell Treasurys. The Largest Earthquakes in the United States The following table lists the largest earthquakes in the United States on record, according to rank, magnitude, date, and location.

The largest earthquake to hit the U.S. was on March 28, , when a magnitude quake struck Prince William Sound in Alaska.

Armenian earthquake - Wikipedia