Archive About the Journal An infectious disease whose occurrence has increased in the past years or threatens to increase is termed as emerging. These diseases include new infections, previously unrecognized infections and old infections reappearing due to antimicrobial resistance and public health issues due to unhygienic conditions. Journal of Infectious Disease and Pathology JIDP is an open access, peer-reviewed scientific journal dealing with articles on different aspects of mycosis, lower respiratory infections, measles, ophthalmic diseases, infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology, cysticercosis, dengue fever, histoplasmosis, lassa fever, norovirus infection, tularemia, west nile virus infection, cholera, cryptococcosis, diphtheria, ebola hemorrhagic fever, listeriosis, shigellosis, swine flu, and stomach flu etc.
External links Distribution Although the disease probably originated in southeast Asia, the first recording of the disease was made in in Australia, where it was observed at Eagle Farm near Brisbane . It was then reported from Panama in Within a decade the disease had spread to Costa Rica and subsequent outbreaks occurred in SurinamCubaTrinidadJamaicaHonduras and Guatemala The disease has since been Fungal disease in malaysia from most banana-producing countries.
Symptoms Main symptoms of Fusarium wilt Fusarium wilt is a typical vascular wilt disease. The fungus invades the vascular tissue through the roots causing discolouration and wilting, eventually killing the plant. The progress of the internal symptoms can influence the first appearance of the external symptoms.
The fruit do not exhibit any symptom. The characteristic internal symptom of Fusarium wilt is vascular discolouration, which varies from pale yellow in the early stages to dark red or almost black in later stages.
Internal symptoms first develop in the feeder roots, which are the initial infection sites. The fungus spreads to the rhizome and then the pseudostem. Externally, the first signs of disease are usually wilting and yellowing of the older leaves around the margins.
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The yellow leaves may remain erect or collapse at the petiole. Sometimes, the leaves remain green, except for spots on the petiole, but still snap.
The collapsed leaves hang down the pseudostem like a skirt. Eventually, all the leaves fall down and dry up. Splitting of the base of the pseudostem is another common symptom. Other symptoms include irregular, pale margins on new leaves and the wrinkling and distortion of the leaf blade.
Infected suckers do not start showing symptoms of Fusarium wilt until they are about 4 months old, a situation that has contributed to the spread of the disease through planting material. The fruit does not show any specific disease symptoms.
Reddish to dark brown discoloration of the vascular system. Yellowing typically begins at the margin of the older leaves. Collapsed older leaves hanging down the pseudostem. Farmers may spread the Fusarium fungus by transplanting symptomless but infected suckers. Similar diseases The leaf symptoms of Fusarium wilt can be confused with those of the bacterial disease Xanthomonas wilt.
In plants affected by Fusarium, yellowing and wilting of the leaves typically progresses from the older to the younger leaves. The wilted leaves may also snap at the petiole and hang down the pseudostem.
In plants affected by Xanthomonas, the wilting can begin with any leaf and the infected leaves tend to snap along the leaf blade. In countries with Moko disease, which is caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2, and also causes vascular discoloration, it is possible to confuse the two diseases.
Unlike Moko, Fusarium wil does not cause wilting and blackening of young suckers or a dry rot in the fruit. The first symptoms of Moko on rapidly growing plants are the chlorosis, yellowing and collapse of the three youngest leaves, not the older leaves as with Fusarium wilt.
Finally, with Moko the vascular discoloration is concentrated near the centre of the pseudostem and not peripherally, which is common with Fusarium wilt.
Planting material Symptomless but infected suckers or rhizomes can transmit the disease when planted in a new area. Infected planting material is often responsible for the local, national and international spread of the disease.
Certified tissue-culture plantlets should be free of the fungus and would not contribute to the spread of the disease. Soil The fungus can persist in soil for decades, even in the absence of bananas. It can survive in infested plant debris and in the roots of alternative hosts.
Staff and visitors to a banana plantation have the potential of moving the fungus in or out through infested soil attached to vehicles, tools and shoes.
Untreated soil used as a potting medium can transmit the fungus and animals can also move around fungal spores present in soil.
Water Spores can be carried in surface run-off water.Fungal Planet is a global initiative to highlight fungal diversity by describing new spedies in relation to their environment.
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