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Description[ edit ] The Rosetta Stone is listed as "a stone of black granodioritebearing three inscriptions No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site.
The top register, composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs, suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen; all of them are broken on the right side, and 12 of them on the left. The following register of demotic text has survived best; it has 32 lines, of which the first 14 are slightly damaged on the right side.
The final register of Greek text contains 54 lines, of which the first 27 survive in full; the rest are increasingly fragmentary due to a diagonal break at the bottom right of the stone. The texts are of similar length. These parallels, and a hieroglyphic sign for "stela" on the stone itself, see Gardiner's sign listsuggest that it originally had a rounded top.
The date is given as "4 Xandicus" in the Macedonian calendar and "18 Meshir " in the Egyptian calendarwhich corresponds to March 27, BC. Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in BC by Aristomenes of Alyziawho was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree.
Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thracewhile the Battle of Panium BC had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syriaincluding Judaeafrom the Ptolemies to the Seleucids. In earlier periods, all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture.
The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the "language of the gods" hieroglyphsthe "language of documents" demoticand the "language of the Greeks" as used by the Ptolemaic government. The High Priests of Memphis —where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authorities of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom.
An up-to-date translation by R. Simpson appears on the British Museum website, based on the demotic text. Bevan 's full translation in The House of Ptolemy based on the Greek text with footnote comments on variations between this and the two Egyptian texts.
The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid Rosetta where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais. Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay c.
Unlike the Rosetta Stone, the hieroglyphic texts of these other copies of the decree were relatively intact. The Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before they were found, but later Egyptologists, including Wallis Budgeused these other copies to refine the reconstruction of the hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic text on the Rosetta Stone.
A corps of technical experts savantsknown as the Commission des Sciences et des Artsaccompanied the French expeditionary army to Egypt. On July 15,French soldiers under the command of Colonel d'Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Juliena couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta modern-day Rashid.
Lancret's report, dated July 19,was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars.
Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette, the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August The anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs.
One of these experts was Jean-Joseph Marcela printer and gifted linguist, who is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text was written in the Egyptian Demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and seldom seen by scholars at that time, rather than Syriac as had originally been thought.The Original Affluent Society.
Marshall Sahlins. Hunter-gatherers consume less energy per capita per year than any other group of human beings. Music, Film, TV and Political News Coverage. Joseph Smith said that the Book of Mormon was “the most correct of any Book on earth & the keystone of our religion & a man would get nearer to God by abiding by its precepts than by any other Book.” 1 The Book of Mormon came into the world through a series of miraculous events.
Much can be known about the coming forth of the English text of the Book of Mormon through a careful study of. The heart is a hollow muscular, cone-shaped organ, lying between the lungs in a block of tissue called the mediastinum. It tilts obliquely, a little more to the left than the right and presents a circular base above and an apex below.
There is something powerfully raw and vivid about Hannah Arendt’s essay that came out in the midst of Europe’s darkness in the Second World War, before the worst horrors inflicted upon the Jews were fully unveiled.
Originally published in January as “We Refugees” in a small Jewish journal called Menorah (shut down in ), . Gary Foley's personal Koori History page, with monthly special features on aspects of the Aboriginal struggle, photos, essays, and action.