As the name suggests, your Theory of Knowledge TOK essay should focus on knowledge issues what is knowledge?
The second feature reviews tan venaTibetan Tumulus Tradition, an online resource May tok 2014 help the study of ancient Central Tibetan burial monuments.
The third article pertains to two types of copper alloy objects with far-ranging connections to the rest of Eurasia, opening up an exciting new area of inquiry into Tibetan cultural history. The fourth and final feature in this newsletter reports on the recent destruction of archaeological monuments in Upper Tibet.
The arguments I make could form the theme of an entire book, but I have only a few paragraphs to devote to them here, so please bear with me. Many of the matters discussed are done so in the most cursory of fashions. Still, I trust my thesis will be shown to be sound. Tibet was and is a civilization, not a single culture.
That Tibet is a distinctive civilization was given currency by Tibetologists of the last generation, including the highly respected R.
Stein, David Snellgrove, and Hugh Richardson. Unfortunately, many writers on Tibet seem not to have taken heed. This overarching concept is misleading, because it diminishes the scope of Tibet and her august achievements over the course of history.
It is also inaccurate to refer to a singular Tibetan culture, linguistically and ethnographically speaking. It must be left May tok 2014 help the linguists to decide, but at last count there were no less than 30 languages spoken on the Plateau and in adjacent high mountain areas.
Some of these languages are closely related as Spanish and Italian are as part of the Bodish branch of languages. Others are more distantly connected as members of the Bodic family of languages.
What is not often appreciated is that there are languages in eastern Tibet that do not even belong to the Bodic family. Some of the living languages of the deep valleys of Gyalrong, as well as the extinct language of Zhang Zhung and othersfall into this category.
Certain non-Bodic languages of Tibet find a place in the Qiangic language family. For a classification of Tibetic languages not others spoken on the Plateausee author Nicolas Tournadre with partial bibliography of his important linguistic work at: These groups tend to view and organize themselves as endemic organisms, each with its own religious traditions, social customs, architecture, costumes, histories, ethnic origins, etc.
Although there is no universally agreed upon definition, civilization can most simply be described as a cultural and technological system, characterized by a high degree of material and intellectual development.
The possession of large monuments, literature, complex religion, stratified social systems, agriculture, centralized political control, urbanization, extensive trade, and industry are traditionally used as benchmarks of civilization. In the 20th century, assessing civilization on physical criteria alone came under question.
A more modern definition of civilization considers the ethical and spiritual dimension, conceptual and behavioral innovations that encourage widespread human well-being and illumination. Civilization is often contrasted to other forms of collective human experience such as that represented in tribal, hunting-and-gathering, and itinerant societies.
I contend that Tibet must be included in their elite ranks, at least from the Metal Age until the modern period, for Tibet also possessed the same set of fundamental traits.
It is true that writing and literature only came later to Tibet 7th century CEand urban centers have been traditionally restricted in number, but Tibet meets in ample measure all other chief criteria enumerated above. Agriculture spread widely in Neolithic Tibet, one of the most important building blocks of civilization.
Already by the Iron Age, the Tibetan Plateau was home to an impressive range of monuments including citadels, temples, and necropolises.
These structures, as well as many spectacular material objects, are unique to Tibet as is the Tibetan human genomesetting her apart from neighboring civilizations.
The assemblage of archaeological monuments varies from region to region, indicating that the Tibetan Plateau was already a very culturally diverse place more than years ago. Recent archaeological discoveries in western Tibet have uncovered trade links with the Indian Subcontinent, Central Asia, and China in the second half of the first millennium BCE and early first millennium CE.
Greater Mongolia, especially in the Bronze Age and early Iron Age, was a seat of civilization, but its fortunes waned over time. On the other hand, Tibet retained a robust system of sedentary settlement. In the early historic period circa — CEthe various peoples and cultures of the Tibetan Plateau were unified under the Pugyal sPu-rgyal empire.
This was a time of a strong centralized state, a characteristic political feature of civilization. The emperors btsan-po were the first to create a sense of a greater Tibetan nation, built up from the pre-existing proto-nations of the Plateau Bod, Zhang Zhung, Sumpa, Azha, Minyak, Jang, and Mon.Some challenges are good natured like the “Ice Bucket challenge”, but others can be serious and potentially life threatening, for example, in the case of the “Tide Pod challenge”.
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