We seek your assistance in helping to create a descriptive list see below of existing IR paradigms, approaches and theories. If you know of a particular IR theory, for example, that is not listed and described below, please e-mail the name of the theory and a brief description of it to Mark Beavis at irtheory hotmail. Even if you only know the name, send it: The list will be maintained as an on-going project and knowledge resource which will be developed and enhanced over time.
Antoine Destutt de Tracy The term "ideology" was born during the Reign of Terror of French Revolutionand acquired several other meanings thereafter. The word, and the system of ideas associated with it, was coined by Antoine Destutt de Tracy in while he was in prison pending trial during the Terror.
The coup that overthrew Maximilien Robespierre allowed Tracy to pursue his work. He devised the term for a "science of ideas" he hoped would form a secure foundation for the moral and political sciences.
He based the word on two things: He conceived "Ideology" as a liberal philosophy that would defend individual liberty, property, free marketsand constitutional limits on state power. He argues that among these aspects ideology is the most generic term, because the science of ideas also contains the study of their expression and deduction.
According to Karl Mannheim 's historical reconstruction of the shifts in the meaning of ideology, the modern meaning of the word was born when Napoleon used Political theory thesis to describe his opponents as "the ideologues".
In the century after Tracy, the term ideology moved back and forth between positive and negative connotations. He describes ideology as rather like teaching philosophy by the Socratic methodbut without extending the vocabulary beyond what the general reader already possessed, and without the examples from observation that practical science would require.
Taine identifies it not just with Destutt De Tracy, but also with his milieu, and includes Condillac as one of its precursors. Destutt de Tracy read the works of Locke and Condillac while he was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror.
The term "ideology" has dropped some of its pejorative stingand has become a neutral term in the analysis of differing political opinions and views of social groups. Some have described this kind of analysis as meta-ideology—the study of the structure, form, and manifestation of ideologies. Recent analysis tends to posit that ideology is a coherent system of ideas that rely on a few basic assumptions about reality that may or may not have any factual basis.
Ideas become ideologies that is, become coherent, repeated patterns through the subjective ongoing choices that people make, serving as the seed around which further thought grows. According to most recent analysis, ideologies are neither necessarily right nor wrong.
Believers in ideology range from passive acceptance through fervent advocacy to true belief. This accords with definitions, such as by Manfred Steger and Paul Jamesthat emphasize both the issue of patterning and contingent claims to truth: Ideologies are patterned clusters of normatively imbued ideas and concepts, including particular representations of power relations.
These conceptual maps help people navigate the complexity of their political universe and carry claims to social truth. Charles Blattberg offers an account that distinguishes political ideologies from political philosophies.
Minar describes six different ways the word "ideology" has been used: As a collection of certain ideas with certain kinds of content, usually normative As the form or internal logical structure that ideas have within a set By the role ideas play in human-social interaction By the role ideas play in the structure of an organization As meaning, whose purpose is persuasion As the locus of social interaction For Willard A.
Mullins an ideology should be contrasted with the related but different issues of utopia and historical myth.Literary Theory "Literary theory" is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean.
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"Teaching as a Subversive Activity": The Theory of Political Indoctrination Last weekend I visited the U.C. Berkeley campus and on a whim attended a lecture with the provocative title "Teaching as a Subversive Activity — Revisited."Because this was a presentation aimed at education insiders only, the lecturer, retired professor H.
Douglas Brown from S.F. State, seemed perfectly willing to. An ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons..
The term was coined by Antoine Destutt de Tracy in , who conceived it as the "science of ideas". In contemporary philosophy it is narrower in scope than that original concept, or the ideas expressed in broad concepts such as worldview, imaginary and ontology.